Correctional Recreation: a Bibliography
We provide this bibliography to encourage dissemination of these materials and to assist further research in Correctional Recreation.
Note we have a separate page devoted to a Bibliography of Weight Lifting in Prisons. It covers papers related to the issues of lifting in prisons and articles on weightlifting in prisons.
This page is relatively lengthy. If you are searching for references in a specific area of correctional recreation (youth, juvenile, women, rodeo or Angola for rodeo, pet therapy, sport, art, movie, recreation for the mentally ill, old, etc) you might try having your browser search this page for those topics.
The phrase "NEWS-" indicates references from the news media, "THESIS-" indicates thesis or dissertation, MOVIE indicates a movie and "BOOK-" indicates a book.
NCJRS# refers to the paper number in the National Criminal Justice Reference Service abstracts database.
Correctional Recreation Serials (magazines) are listed at the bottom of the page.
Downloadable viewer for
Adobe Acrobat .pdf documents.
- Correctional Recreation on Death Row: Should Pardon Be Granted? D.J. Williams. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. Vol.42 No.2. 2006. The article explores why Correctional Recreation may be viewed as expendable, and suggestions how Correctional Recreation can be used to make contributions to psychotherapeutic rehabilitation. Dr. Williams has spoken at past NCRA Conferences.
- Health And Quality of Life Outcomes this online, free access journal has many articles on the issues surrounding "Quality of Life" that may be useful to those researching the impact of correctional recreation on quality of life.
- Forensic Leisure Science: A New Frontier for Leisure Scholars. D.J. Williams. Leisure Sciences. Jan-Feb 2006.
- Gambling in Prison: A Benign Leisure Activity
D.J. Williams (a speaker at past NCRA conferences). Published in "Research Reveals" Vol.4 No.5. by the Alberta Gaming Research Institute.
June-July 2005. Paper reports inmates gamble with soap, currency, cigarettes and even push ups. Gambling may increase when other outlets
(hobbies, sports) are removed from the system.
- Crime and Addiction Series Part 2 - Sex Offenders
on Prison Gambling: Harmful Addiction of Opportunity for Leisure?". D.J. Williams. Basis Online. Division of Addictions. Cambridge
Health Alliance - Harvard Medical School. Similar to the paper above with a greater focus on sex offenders.
- Free to Change. Michael Francis. Parks & Recreation. Sept. 2005. Nice story about corrrectional recreation in general.
Includes interviews with several individuals working in the Nebraska state prison system, including Bob Houston, Bob Tlustos and Rob Treptow.
- What is the Perceived Worth of Recreation: Results From a County Jail Study. Marcia J. Carter and Kelly J. Russell. Corrections Today.
June 2005. Pgs. 80-83, 91. American Correctional Association. College students surveyed administrators, staff and inmates at county jail housing
an average of 970 inmates to determine if recreation programs offered by the Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist were useful tools.
- Inmates Write, Perform Own Version of McBeth.
Tribune-Star Terra Haute IN Carlisle - A dozen inmates of the level 4 drama team at the Wabash Valley Correctional Center near Carlisle spent
a month preparing a 90 minute production titled, Shadows of McBeth, they played it to an audience of about 30 inmates.
- Italian Inmates Become Jailhouse Vintners, Poets, Actors.
Free New Mexican. Associated Press. By Daniel Williams. 14 March 2005. Italian prisons are trying to train prisoners to do useful things
(job skills to work locally).
- Golf Course on Prison Grounds Offers Links to World Outside.
San Diego Union Tribune. 8 March 2005. Lousiana State Penitentiary at Angola used some funds from their prison rodeo to build a golf course called,
Prison View. Inmates care for the course which is open for use by the public.
- An Experiment on the Inclusion of Strength Training in Offender Substance Abuse Treatment. D.J. Williams. Offender Programs Report, 5, 17-29.
- DISSERTATION - Release From the "Us vs. Them" Prison: Granting Freedom by Giving Voice to Multiple Identities in Physical Activity and Offender Rehabilitation. D.J. Williams. University of Alberta. 207 pages. 2004. Mr. Williams has presented at past NCRA Conferences. Available from Digital Dissertations.
- BOOK - Le Sport en Prison. Laurent Gras. Published by L'Harmattan in Paris. 282 pages. Includes about ten pages of biliographical references. ISBN #274757721X. Available online in French as an ebook from a French site. A translation reports the book takes a historical approach noting sport was initially justified by a disciplinary logic, then later as an educational tool.
- An Exploration of Therapeutic Recreation in Adult Federal Medical Centers and Wisconsin Correctional Facilities. by Lisa J. Olson. University of Wisconsin UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research. VII. 2004. A survey of demographic and treatment information from Therapeutic Recreation professionals employed at Federal Medical Centers and Wisconsin Correctional Facilities.
- Perceived Effects of a Health Education Service-Learning Program. by John Amtmann. Journal of
Correctional Education. Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 335-348. This is John's last of several article on correctional wellness.
- Inside Job: Correctional Recreation Specialists. by Michael Popke. Athletic Business. Sept. 2004. Pgs. 83-90. In depth story about what it is like to work in Correctional Recreation, current trends, etc. with many quotes from those working in the field. We were interviewed and helped Mr. Popke make some contacts in the early part of his research for the article. This is one of the most in depth articles written from the "job / management" perspective in several years.
- Beauties Strut their Stuff in Peru Prison. Associated Press. 29 Sept. 2004. Lima Peru - elegantly dressed beauty contestants vie to be the 10th annual beauty contest queen at Santa Monica Women's Prison in Lima Peru. All are doing time for drug running. A prison spokeswoman reports the contest promotes re-socialization and creates space for recreation and companionship to raise self esteem and reduce stress.
- New Leash on Life. Christina Cheakalos. Smithsonian. August 2004. Pgs. 63-68. Inmates raising and training dogs for the blind.
- Sports in Prison Series by Michael Dobie published by Newsday.com Jul/Aug 2004
They spent 11 months making 20 visits to 11 prisons in 6 states gathering material for this series. It exceeds all previous efforts in this area and now becomes the definitive work in its field. We were interviewed by Mr. Dobie in the very early gathering background information / identifying possible contacts stage of his project. This is the most exhaustive news media special of prison recreation ever attempted. Congratulations to Mr. Dobie and his team for this great series. The series kicks off with a great flash video, then follows up with dozens of articles.
- An Interactive Special Report. 11 July 2004. A video introducing the series in flash format. This is very well done and the only video of this nature we are aware of online.
- Part One 11 July 2004
- Part Two 18 July 2004
- Win or Lose, Its Rodeo. 18 July 2004. Covers the Angola Prison Rodeo.
- The Alcatraz of the South. 18 July 2004. Inside Angola. Although best known for its annual rodeo, many other sports also flourish inside Angola, and several athletes once well known on the outside, are now on the inside.
- Golf at Angola?. 18 July 2004. Inmates built a golf course for staff use to keep them closer to the prison in their off hours so they could respond more rapidly to emergencies.
- Football Challenge Rallies Inmates. 18 July 2004. Six teams at Angola play a ten game series of tackle football culminating in the Crunch Bowl.
- Convict Poker Champ has Guts. 18 July 2004.
- Part Three 25 July 2004
- Part Four 1 August 2004
- Saints Deliver. 1 Aug 2004. The "Saints" traveling Christian ministry softball team visits / plays Ulster Correctional Facility in upstate New York.
- "Dog" Longs for a Different Lineup. 1 August 2004. The "hardest-throwing pitcher" on the all-star softball team at Eastern Correctional Facility longs for the day he will be able to play for the "Saints" prison ministry softball team instead of against them.
- Champions for Life. 1 Aug 2004. Champions for Life, a Christian sports ministry has famous athletes do demonstrations and talk to prisoners about changing their lives.
- Part Five 8 Aug 2004
- NEWS- Prison Sports Field to Cost $50,000. The Press (Canterbury New Zealand). 29 May 2004. Locals are upset at the cost of a new sports field at Christchurch Women's Prison. The article can be seen from HighBeam.com.
- Con Games. Sports Illustrated. Vol.100 No.22. May 2004. Pgs. 62-69. Inmates at Trenton State Prison in New Jersey played chess against an Ivy Leage chess whiz. A local prison chess tourney determined who would play the guest.
- NEWS- Doing Porridge -- French Prisoners Write a Cook Book. AFP (an international news service). Apr. 2004. A competition in 165 French prisons resulted in the publication of "I Cook for Myself Alone" by Claude Deroussent a doctor a the Ensisheim prison for serious offenders who received editing help from a three starred chef.
- DISSERTATION- Resiliency Development of Incarcerated Youth Through Outcome-based Recreation Experiences. Cooper, Nelson Lee, PhD. Clemsen University PhD dissertation. 2003. 152 pages. AAT 3098295. This dissertation examines how correctional recreation experiences can be structured to make youth more resilient when later (on the outside) placed in adverse situations. Available from Digital Dissertations.
- Weight Lifting in Prisons: A Survey and Recommendations. John Amtmann, Don Berryman and Robert Fisher. Journal of Correctional Health Care. Vol.10. No.1. Spring 2003. Pgs. 109-118. Surveyed twenty-five western U.S. prisons on weight lifting safety policies (performance of maximum attempts, educating lifters in how to safely perform lifts, having qualified personal in charge, etc.) Only 2 had policies regarding equipment use. The authors recommend the presence of qualified, certified supervision, enforcement of a safe lifting policy, including limiting one rep max attempts, having inmates perform at least six repetitions, emphasizing slow, controlled lifting movements, and proper warm-up and cooldown procedures. A more detailed
abstract is available from the journal's web site.
- NEWS- Bans on Smoking in Prison Shrink a Coveted Market: Big Tobacco Courted Inmates for Decades, Yielding Reliable Funds for Many States. By Vanessa O'Connell. Wall Street Journal. 27 August 2003.
Pgs. A1 and A6.
Discusses the potential financial impact of banning smoking in prisons on funds and equipment for correctional recreation. Several cigarette companies donate athletic equipment to prisons for the right to sell their cigarettes there, plus many prisons use revenue generated by sales of cigarettes to purchase recreation equipment.
- NEWS- Sterling Prison Put On Lockdown. By Sarah Huntley. Rocky Mountain News. 2 July 2003.
A Colorado prison goes to lockdown as inmates protest pay cuts up to 70 percent. The article notes about $2 million dollars in revenue from canteen sales to fund Colorado's correctional recreation and education programs. Reducing the earning potential of inmates will impact those programs financially. The author points out recreation and education programs reduce recidivism and idleness.
- NEWS- A Series of Articles on Team Sports at San Quentin. By Dave Albee and Ryan Metcalfe. Marin Independent Journal. May 25-27, 2003.
- San Quentin Sports: A Diamond in the Rough. By Dave Albee. May 25, 2003.
Extensive coverage of San Quentin's baseball team. The story of the baseball team, revived in 1994 by the prison chaplin has been purchased by Columbia Pictures for use in an upcoming movie.
- Former Major Leagers Recall Time Spent at Prison. By Dave Albee. May 25, 2003.
Duane Kuiperback and Mike Krukow recall playing a San Francisco Giants fantasy league game against the inmates at San Quentin on Oct. 8, 1994.
- Marin's Nave One of San Quentin Prison's Greatest Sports Success Stories. By Dave Albee. May 26, 2003.
The story of Paul Nave, a great San Quentin boxer who was once allowed to box outside.
- Famous Athletes, Famous Killers Pepper Prison's Colorful History. By Dave Albee. May 26, 2003.
Several famous athletes and well known criminals have served time at San Quentin. Curtis Charles, a great prison baseball player "tried out" for the San Francisco Giants there .
- A Major Part of Everyday Life in Prison. By Dave Albee. May 27, 2003.
The warden, Jeanne Woodford, discusses the positive aspects of team sports on San Quentin. This is an excellent article on the positive aspects of correctional recreation.
- Little League Baseball Wasn't Scary at Prison, TV's Ibanez Remembers. By Dave Albee. May 27, 2003.
KTVU Channel 2 Sport Director, Mark Ibanez, recalls playing little league baseball games inside the wall at San Quentin in the 1960s.
- Ryan Metcalfe: Suiting Up Inside Prison Gates is a Life-Altering Experience. By Ryan Metcalfe. May 27, 2003.
Playing for a semi-pro team back in 1989, the author played against the Vacaville Stars at the Vacaville State Medical Facility at a time when San Quentin was out of the prison baseball league.
- NEWS- The Home Field Advantage Goes to This Murderers' Row Baseball Team. International Herald Tribune. 20 May 2003.
Baseball at San Quentin.
- NEWS- Those Are Definitely Not Angels in the Outfield. New York Times. 19 May 2003.
Baseball at San Quentin.
- NEWS- From Prison to the Pros. by Tom Worgo. Basketball Digest. May 2003.
Lee Benson is making his run for the NBA after spending several years in prison (1993-2001) at Warren Correctional Institution in Lebanon Ohio.
- NEWS - Panhandle Prison Guard's Injuries Not Life Threatening. Associated Press. 30 May 2003.
Five guards injured in rec yard mele at Washington Correctional Institution in Florida on Wednesday May 28th.
- NEWS- Prison Football Team Leads Fair Play League. Ananova. 27 May 2003.
A Czech prison football (soccer) team from the Straz Pod Ralskem Prison Side has the best disciplinary record in the North Bohemia league. It also leads the league in points after eight games.
- NEWS- Budget Woes Lead to Pay Cuts for Inmates. Newsday (Associated Press report). 20 May 2003.
Budget cuts in the state of Colorado lead to cuts in inmate pay for working and nonworking inmates. This might impact recreation supplies purchased by inmates in Colorado and other states?).
- NEWS- Baseball; Learning Team Spirit Behind Bars. By Marek Fuchs. New York Times. 29 Apr. 2003. Late Edition - Final, Section D, Page 2, Column 3.
Men and women prison team sports including baseball and volleyball are discussed. It also talks about games between prisons.
- NEWS- For the First Time in Nearly a Decade, Florida Prisons Buy Recreation Gear. Naples Daily News. 28 April 2003.
After approved by the Florida Legislature, FL prisons spent $37,409 on recreational equipment in supplies between July and December 2002. The article quotes Gary Boyd, NCRA president.
- NEWS- Explosive Tennis Ball May Have Sprung Gangster. Sunday Times - London. 16 Mar. 2003.
French police think Antonio Ferrara, imprisoned for bank robbery, may have blown out his cell window with an explosive tennis ball.
- Offender Subjective Quality of Life: What is it and Why is it Important to Correctional Recreation. DJ Williams. University of Alberta. Brief report adapted from a full-length article that may appear in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. Report was distributed at 2003 National Correctional Recreation Association conference. Portland Oregon. March 14, 2003.
- Correctional Recreation, Weightlifting in Prison, and Rehabilitation: A Comparison of Attitudes. Thomas K. Anderson. Presented at the 2003 National Correctional Recreation Association Conference. Portland Oregon. March 14, 2003.
Presentation based on his 2001 M.S. Thesis at Western Illinois University. He used a survey to compare attitudes of members of two professional recreation associations.
- The Inclusion of Strength Training to Offender Substance Abuse Treatment: A Pilot Experiment Conducted at a Day Reporting Centre. D.J. Williams. University of Alberta. Empirical and Applied Criminal Justice Research Journal (EACJR). March 2003. [PDF document].
Individuals motivated to strength train seemed to do better than controls, while those who were not "ready" to strength train did worse than the controls. It may then possible to prescribe various forms of activity that an individual is ready to engage in, which may
also address a treatment need.
- NEWS- Itís prison,
Not Playland. Editorial Staff. Sault Star. Tuesday, February 25, 2003.
More coverage of the recent clamp down on amenities in Canada.
- NEWS- Prison Guards Welcome Proposal for Stricter Regime. The Edmonton Journal (Canada). By Mike Sadava. 25 Feb 2003.
Prisoners could lose recreation perks for misbehavior.
- NEWS- Cut Freedoms of Problem Inmates, Prisons Urged. Toronto Star (Canada). By Judy Monchuk of Canadian Press. 23 Feb. 2003.
A recent 36 page report to senior Corrections Service of Canada officials recommends reviewing freedoms and comforts at all institutions.
- NEWS- The Inside Story of How Sport is Changing Lives. Independent Digital (UK). By Alan Hubbard. 23 Feb 2003.
Thorn Cross, a youth institution in the UK is using sports to significantly reduce recidivism over the last three years. Geoff Thompson has helped set up sports programs in 10 UK prisons ranging from top security units down to "model" youth offender units.
- NEWS- Injuries not uncommon in juvenile facility. South Bend Tribune, IN - 16 Feb 2003.
... hurt is not an everyday occurrence at the South Bend Juvenile Correctional ... The next highest number of injuries -- 37 -- happened during recreation, when boys ...
- Strength Training in Prisons. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal. John Amtmann. Montana Tech of the University of Montana. Vol.25. No.1. Feb. 2003. Pgs. 44-46.
Article talks about the controversy surrounding lifting in prisons, research on possible benefits of lifting in prison (including his work on the "Over 40" program at Montana State Prison), and suggests the possibility of partnerships between colleges teaching strength training programs at institutions of higher education and correctional institutions.
- NEWS- Electric guitar not a right, court says. Detroit Free Press (freep). Reuters. 12 Feb. 2003. By James Vicini.
U.S. Court of Appeals for District of Columbia uphelp USBOP decision to ban electric guitars. This regulation originated as part of the Zimmer Ammendment back in 1996.
- Brett C. Kimberlin and Darrell Rice v. U.S. Dept. of Justice and Bureau or Prisons. U.S. Court of Appeals fo the District of Columbia Circuit. Decided Feb. 11, 2003. [PDF document].
Two inmates charge their first ammendment rights were violated when electric guitars were removed by the Zimmer Amendment in 1995. This is the actual case decision. The BOP won, but opinion includes interesting dissenting comments from one justice. News report of case findings is in the item above this one.
- Self-Esteem Maintenance Among Incarcerated Young Males: Stabilisation Through Accommodative Processes. Werner Greve and Dirk Enzmann both of the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN), Hannover, Germany. International Journal of Behavioral Development published by Psychology Press, part of the Taylor & Francis Group. Vol.27 No.1. January 2003. Pgs.12 - 20.
- Prisoner Access to Recreation, Entertainment and Diversion. Punishment & Society. 1 Jan. 2003. Vol.5 No.1. Pgs. 33-52. Article discusses the moral rights of prisoners to access recreation, entertainment and diversion. Can be viewed from ScienceMag.org
- Comprehensive Restoratative Justice: An Overview of the Relationship Among Restoratative Justice, Quality of Life, and Offender Rehabilitation. D.J. Williams and T.L. Zellner. Offender Programs Report. Vol.6 No.5. Pgs. 67-75. 2003.
- "Luxuries" in Prison: The Relationship Between Amenity Funding and Public Support. By Nygel Lenz.
Crime and Delinquency. Oct. 2002. Vol.48. No.4. Pgs. 499-525.
Article investigates citizen opposition to prison amenties and finds opposition is
influenced by who pays for them (inmates or citizens). Can be viewed from ScienceMag.org
- BOOK- Solitary Fitness. By Charles Bronson, Stephen Richards editor. Printed in the UK. Published 14 Oct. 2002. Mirage Publishing; ISBN: 1902578120 Paperback - 220 pages. Book is sold online by Bronson online and by Amazon UK.
Workout guide by an inmate who spent years in solitary confinment in the UK. Language is a bit crude.
- NEWS - Prisons set to buy sporting goods. St. Petersburg Times Online. AP report. 20 June 2002. Starke FL.
Florida passed an inmate wellness bill (SB560) in Feb/Mar 2002 at the request of prison guards. The bill, which takes effect July 1, 2002, allows prison officials to rent or purchase wellness equipment (but specifically bans weight lifting equipment). Some legislators want the money spent on cardiovascular equipment (treadmills & exercise bikes) while prisons may use the money to purchase basketballs and other sports equipment. Includes comments from Gary Boyd, NCRA president.
- Recreation Program Changes at the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Federal Bureau of Prisons. 17 July 2002. [PDF Format].
The first page highlights changes in the existing 23 Feb 2000 Federal Prison Recreation Program. It is followed by a full copy of the previous program. Total document is 29 pages long. A 10 page Appendix consists of the Question and Answers the government provided to assist in implementation of the Zimmer Amendment (Public Law 105-277 Section 610) which relates to exercise equipment, movies and musical instruments.
- MOVIE - Mean Machine. Paramount Studios. Directed by Barry Skolnick, staring Vinnie Jones. Released 16 July 2002.
A British remake of the Longest Yard. It covers a well known soccer player (Dannie Meehan played by Vinnie Jones) who lands in prison, coaches the prison team made up of guards and eventually stages an inmates v. guards soccer game.
- The Role of Recreation in Preventing Youth
From Coming into Contact With the Juvenile Justice System and Preventing Recidivism. David K. Howard. Doctoral Student at the College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida and Lorraine C. Peniston. Learing Support Services, University of New Mexico. American Institutes for Research. Pelavin Research Center. Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice. Washington D.C. July 2002.
This 34 page article talks about specific recreation programs and related resources that can be used to keep youth out of the juvenile justice system. Many of the features and benefits of recreation listed are parallel to those often listed for prison recreation. Our comment- A similar paper focusing on recreation programs and resources available to inmates after being released, might be helpful to parole officers?
- State Budget Shortfalls Impact Correctional Recreation; The View From Both Sides. By Gary Polson president of Strength Tech, Inc. Presented at the 2002 National Correctional Recreation Association Conference in Omaha Nebraska. March 2002.
Extensive coverage of current state budget cuts and how they are impacting correctional recreation, including possible future actions.
- NEWS- MSP Exercise Program Helps Over 40 Stay Well. The Correctional Signpost. Montana Dept. of Corrections. Jan - Feb. 2002. By Michelle Haseau. Although the article was published in Jan/Feb 2002 the article was priorly published on Corrections.Com on 12 Nov. 2001.
An update on John Amtmann's 2000 thesis. Montana Tech operated strength training, aerobic training and flexibility training at Montana State Prison for inmates over 40 years of age and found significant improvement in the health and well being of the inmates. They were also provided specific times they could access the weight lifting areas without having to compete with the younger inmates.
- Focusing on Nebraska's Young Violent Offenders. By Robert P. Houston and Kurt Jordan. Corrections Today. Oct 2002. A publication of the American Correctional Association. Pgs. 78-80. [PDF] document.
An overview of several elements of the recreation program at a Nebraska youth facility.
- MOVIE - Undisputed. Directed by Walter Hill. Staring Wesley Snipes, Ving Rhames and Peter Falk. Miramax Films. Released to theaters Aug 23, 2002 and on video Nov 26, 2002.
Having more than a bit of Mike Tyson feel to it, an undefeated world champion boxer end up in prison and must fight the prison champ. Wesley Snipes plays Monroe Hutchen, Ving Rhames plays George "Iceman" Chambers, the undisputed undefeated heavyweight champion of the world.
- Weightlifting in Prisons: A Survey and Recommendations. Montana State Prison. 2002. John Amtmann, D. Berryman and R. Fisher.
Article is related to John Amtmann doctoral thesis described in papers listed in year 2000.
- Prisoners' Suit Over R-Rated Movies Worth Another Look,
Says 3rd Circuit. The Legal Intelligencer. Shannon P. Duffy. 25 July 2002.
U.S. 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals reversed an earlier decision to ban R and NC-17 movies from prisons based on the decision methods cited by the earlier court in Wolf v. Ashcroft in the Western District of Pennsylvania. The ban originated as part of the Zimmer Amendment in 1995.
- Carl Wolf, Joseph Craveiero Jr., Douglas Nyhuis v. United States. U.S.. U.S. Court of Appeals for Third Circuit. No. 01-1869. Filed 24 July 2002. [PDF document]
Actual court opinion on the R and NC-17 Rated movie case covered in the item above this one. Has relevance to the Zimmer Amendment.
- NEWS- Gaaoooool! For One Fleeting Week, Football Liberates the Inmates of a Thai Prison. By Jason Gagliardi / Bangkok. Time Asia (Asian version of Time Magazine). Vol.159. No.24. June 24, 2002.
Thailand's director general, Siwa Saengmanee, organized a prison soccer tournyment while everyone was "caught up" in the blitz around the real World Cup and called it the 1st Klong Prem Central Prison World Cup. Teams of seven, with three substitutes, were
chosen by prison staff to represent Nigeria, Japan, the U.S., Italy, France, England, Germany and Thailand. Sounds like it was a great success.
- NEWS- Construction Starts on Permanent Facility to House Prisoners Captured in U.S. War Against Terrorism.
AP Worldstream. February 27, 2002.
A new detention facility composed of 48 cell blocks is being built elsewhere and trucked to the location. It will have 408 separate cells and replace the hastily built Camp X-Ray where the 300 prisoners of war in Afghanistan are being held. The blocks will have a concrete deck where inmates can stretch out and exercise.
- Recent Advances in Intelligence and Self-Esteem: What They May Mean for Correctional Recreation. Dr. Donald Green, University of Nebraska. NCRA 2002 Annual Conference. March 2002.
Among other areas, Dr. Green's presentation discussed possible ramifications of recent research in the field of Serious Leisure to correctional recreation. Basically, serious leisure activities are enduring activities that might be viewed as work by others. Gardening, building hot rods, and hobbies like woodworking, photography and art are examples. These types of activities are thought provoking and could help inmates develop skills and talents, plus they might be developed into lifelong pursuits.
- Understanding Recreation and Sport as a Rehabilitative Tool Within Juvenile Justice Programs. D.J. Williams, William B. Stream and Enrique G. Bengoechea. Juvenile and Family Court Journal. Vol.53 No.2. Spring 2002. Pgs. 31-41.
Article describes Life Development Intervention (LDI) a means of linking sport and recreation to counseling psychology.
- BOOK- We Only Played Home Games. Leonard Brumm. Paperback. 228 pages. Published by Brumm Enterprises L.L.C.. January 15, 2002. ISBN: 0971805008. Sold by Amazon books, Bookwire has a review.
Humorous stories of sports and other events in a Michigan maximum security prison.
- Measured and Perceived Effects of a Correctional Wellness Program. Corrections Compendum. Vol.26 No.9. Pgs. 1-6, 20-23. John Amtmann, R. Evans and J. Powers. 2001.
Paper related the John Amtmann doctoral thesis described in papers listed in year 2000.
- NEWS- Inmates Get a Helping Hoof: Caring for Former Racehorses Puts Offenders on Track . By Tom Pedulla. USA Today. 17 Oct. 2001. Pgs. C3.
Discusses the mutually benificial relationship between Blackburn Correctional Facility in Lexington, Kentucky and the Thoroughbred Retirement Foundation (TRF).
- NEWS- Down for the count. Salon.Com. 19 Sep. 2001. By Phil Busse. (prison bosxing article).
The three part article notes prison boxing has been reforming inmates for decades and investigates why the programs are on the ropes.
- MOVIE- Greenfingers. Directed by Joel Hershman, staring Clive Owen, David Kelly and Helen Mirren. Released to theaters: Jul 27, 2001, released on video Jan 2, 2002.
Inspired by a 1998 New York Times article, "Free To Grow Bluebells in England" humorously telling about the gardening efforts of British prisoners.
- MOVIE- Prison World Cup.
Starring: Jo Jae-Hyeon, Jeong Jin-Yeong and Hwang In-Seong. Directed by Bang Seong-Wung. Produced by ShinCine and Distributed by CJ Entertainment. Language Korean. 2001.
Korean version of the Longest Yard, except this time they play soccer. The United Nations announces an international soccer tournyment for prisoners from all nations. The Korean Herald
reviewed this movie 18 May 2001.
Note the sound is in Korean, but some video CDs are available with English subtitles.
- NEWS- Oregon Inmates Hope to Preserve Athletic Program. Knight-Ridder Tribune Business Wire: The Register Guard - Eugene. 26 Feb. 2001.
Oregon inmates hope their programs survive.
- Fit to be Fit. D.J. Williams. Corrections Technology & Manager. Jan/Feb 2001. Pg. 49.
One page article discusses using exercise to improve offender behavior and treatment results.
- The Wildest Show in the South. Jessica Adams. The Drama Review. Summer2001. Vol.45 No.2. Pg. 94 (15pages).
Coverage of the Louisiana State Penitentiary Rodeo at Angola from the prison perspective along with several socialogical observations.
- Sport and Recreation as Intervention Strategy in Correctional Institutions. Anneliese Goslin and Ben Steyn. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. Vol.6 No.2. Pgs. 99-111. Study attempts to determine if sport can be used to rehabilitate prisoners. As a result of this study, recreation programs were introduced to selected prisons.
- DISSERTATION - Case Study of a Service-Learning Partnership: Montana Tech and the Montana State Prison. Doctoral Thesis. The Montana Tech of University of Montana. 2000. By John Amtmann.
Thesis describes an experiment at Montana State Prison where inmates over 40 were given a block of time for access to the weight areas so they would not have to compete with the younger inmates. They were also provided flexibility, strength and cardiac/aerobic
nger inmates. They were also provided flexibility, strength and cardiac/aerobic training by Montana Tech interns. A series of pre and post questonaires revealed they improved several health and wellness variables.
The program was very successful.
- Leisure Education as a Rehabitative Tool for Youth in Incarceration Settings. By Brenda J. Robertson. Journal of Leisurability. Vol.27 No.2. Spring 2000. Pg. 27-34. [PDF Format].
In addition to covering youth leisure, the paper also provides some historical coverage of correctional recreation. Great paper, nice history.
- THESIS- The Meaning of Leisure Experience in the Lives of Adult Male Offenders and Former Offenders With Mental Retardation. Patricia S. Ardovino. Indiana University. August 2000. PsycINFO Database. Accession Number: 2000-95015-027.
Study investigates the nature of leisure participation for offenders and former offenders with mental retardation before, during, and after incarceration. Also discusses requirements needed to allow these individuals to experience leisure and the meaning of the leisure experience to them.
- Leisure Education as an Antidote for Negative Youth Behaviours . Dr. Brenda J. Robertson. Commission on Education. (CD Rom). Papers from the 6th World Leisure Congress. Bilbao, Spain. Universidad de Desusto. Exellent paper on the history of leisure education being used in a correctional setting with youth and to prevent youth from entering the correctional environment.
- Participation, Motivation, Physical Exercise and Psychological Well-Being Among the a Long Term Prison Population. Garret James Busby Phd. Queens Univ of Belfast U.K. 330 Pages. AAT C802365. Abstract available on ProQuest. Dissertation explores how many variables work in concert to influence participation in sport and exercise. The author creates a model that seems to share several concepts with our Leisure Alternatives Funnel Chart.
- NEWS- Locking up sports ESPN Sports Behind Bars 16 Dec 1999. By Tom Farrey.
ESPN aired a documentary in December 1999 called Sports Behind Bars produced by Matt Marantz. The
one hour show featured segments on a Louisiana State Penitentiary Rodeo ( Angola ), the professional debut of an ex-con boxer and basketball at Mc. Neil Island (WA). That documentary is discussed in the reference above.
- Weighing the Options. Recreation Resources. November 1999. Bob Tlustos of NCRA and I were interviewed for this article.article
It used to be posted at rec-net.com/rr/1999/1199/1199wto.asp
- NEWS- Prison Privileges Are Disappearing Nationwide Trend of Limiting Amenities in Jail Comes Down to Issues of Economics and Safety. Allentown Morning Call. By Erika Chavez. June 6, 1999.
Amenities being cut or limited in some prisons include: contact visits with family members, free coffee, time outside their cells, cigarette smoking, weightlifting, telephone access, free medical visits and in-cell television viewing.
- The Effects of Isotonic Resistance Exercise on Aggression Variables in Adult Male Inmates. Matthew Wagner, Ron McBride, Stephen Crouse. The Prison Journal. Vol.79. No.1. March 1999.
This paper is based on Mattew Wagner's thesis listed in the 1997 references below.
- Recreation/Wellness Items as Population
Management Tools Florida Corrections Commission 1999 Annual Report.
Exellent in-depth, professionally done article on this subject. It brings the history, wellness research and legislation in this area together in a meaningful way. The paper also itemizes the recreational programs and equipment available for wellness activities at several Florida prisons and concludes with a set of recommendations.
- A creative arts performance program for incarcerated women. Kim Dunphy. Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol.26. No.1. Pgs. 35-43. 1999. Published by Elsevier Science/Pergamon. ISSN: 0197-4556. PsycINFO Database. Accession Number: 1999-00737-004.
Discusses multi-arts performance program "Keeping the Faith" at Washington Corrections Center for Women..
Explores involvement for staff and inmates. Program seems to have positive outcomes for participants, particularly in the areas of self-esteem, personal achievement and social skills, along with some benefits for the prison population and the community.
- The Prison Library: A Vital Link to Education, Rehabilitation and Recreation. Education Libraries. 1999. Vol.24. No.1. Pgs. 5-10.
- BOOK - Manslaughter United : a Season With a Prison Football Team. By Chris Hulme. 280 Pages.
Published in 1999 and 2000. London : Yellow Jersey, ISBN: 022405175X.
Chris Hulme, the author, spent a season with the Kingston Arrows (a United Kingdom prison football team playing in the Portsmouth North End League).
- Leisure Services and Programs for Adolescents in Correctional Facilities. M.A. Widmer and W.W. Munson. Presented at the 1999 Midwest Symposium on Therapeutic Recreation.
- Public Perception of Inmate Work and Unstructured Time Florida 1998. (Surveys public on prison weight lifting).
- NEWS- Prison Director Supports Many of Study's Findings (Iowa). Omaha World-Herald 9 Sept. 1998.
Note, this article references a very important study in Iowa.
- BOOK - Unshackled. By Harold Morris. Nantucket Publishing. Published June 1, 1998.
True story by Harold Morris of his incarceration with Marcus "Doc" Odomes, another athlete. They recruited other inmates to play in the first organized integrated basketball game in the Georgia State Penitentiary, the last U.S. prison to intergrate.
- Pet Facilitated Therapy in Correctional Institutions. Office of the Deputy Commissioner for Women. Correctional Service of Canada. April 1998.
Extensive paper on world wide use of pet therapy in prisons. Includes a bibliography.
- NEWS- Free To Grow Bluebells in England. Paula Deitz. New York Times. House & Home/Style Desk. July 16, 1998.
Gardening efforts of British prisoners. This article inspired the movie, Greenfingers.
- NEWS- "Special Report" on Georgia Prison Sports. The Atlanta Journal Constitution. Sunday 22 March 1998.
This article provides excellent historical coverage of prison sports in Georgia and the current prison anti-sports movement.
- Modern Era of Health and Wellness. Dr. Ken Mortisugu. National Correctional Recreation Association 31th Annual Conference Oklahoma City OK. March 6, 1998.
Dr. Mortisugu is the asst. surgeon general and Medical Director of BOB. He discussed evolving correctional situation,
the mission of recreation programs, future of health and wellness, the recent Surgeon General's Report and how to assure your programs will not be cut by cost control efforts.
- BOOK- God of the Rodeo: The Search for Hope, Faith, and a Six-Second Ride in Louisiana's Angola Prison. Daniel Bergner.
Crown Publishers (New York). 297 Pgs. 1998.
Bool on the Louisiana State Penitentiary Rodeo at Angola.
- Management Strategies for Long Term Inmates. The one year study, #96-463A, by Robert Hunter and Keith Crew
at the University of Northern Iowa's Center for Social and Behavioral Research was published in October 1997.
It recommends a "carrot and stick" approach to managing Iowa's long term prison population. The report said prisoners should be allowed to watch television and lift weights but "no inmate privilege should be seen as an entitlement.
- The Effects of Isotonic Resistance Exercise on Aggression Variables in Adult Male Inmates in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Matthew Charles Wagner. PHd thesis Texas A&M University. 1997.
Note a paper published later (1999) is based on this thesis.
- The Zimmer Amendment. By Melanie Hurst and Dick Edwards. Presented at the NCRA 1997 Annual Conference March 1997. Ft Collins CO.
Details of the Zimmer Amendment (No Frills) and how the federal goverment is implementing it.
- The Zimmer Amendment in Washington. By Dennis Miller BOP Office of Education. NCRA 1997 Annual Conference March 1997. Ft Collins CO..
Description in conference program - Straight from the Federal Bureau of Prisons - Office of Education this session will
give federal recreation professionals a chance to hear about the impact this law has had, especially on the first FCI to open
since the bill became law.
- FBOP Guidelines for Conforming to the Zimmer Amendment. Obtained at NCRA 1997 Annual Conference March 1997. Ft Collins CO.
A series of questions and answers about exercise equipment, movies and musical instruments to assist recreational professionals in complying with the Zimmer Amendment.
- The State of Recreation in Corrections.
Aristedes Zavaras Colorado Dept of Corrections. NCRA 1997 Annual Conference Session March 1997. Ft Collins CO.
Keynote address by the Director of the Colorado Department of Corrections.
- THESIS- Empathy, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Responsibility
Among Inmates at a Minimum Security Correctional Facility :
the Value of a Community Service-Based Recreation Program.
Joseph F Dadey. Thesis (M.S. in Ed.)--Southern Illinois University at
Carbondale, 1997. Department of Health Education and Recreation.
391 Pages. OCLC: 38251060
- THESIS- Prison Programming : an Examination of Penal Institutions. Karen Faith Lahm. 140 Pgs. Masters Thesis. Wright State. 1997. OCLC# 38172947.
Survey of programs (including recreation) for female inmates.
- NEWS - Inmates Find Brief Esacpe in Rodeo Ring. By Rick Bragg. New York Times, 10/25/96, Vol. 146 Issue 50591, pA1, 0p, 2bw
Coverage of the Louisiana State Prison Rodeo at Angola.
- Changing the Rules of Recidivism Through Recreation. An NCRA spotlight article by Mary Dallao. Corrections Today. (American Correctional Association). Vol. 58 No.1. February 1996. Pgs. 80 and 101.
This article is a discussion by Steve Erickson (NCRA president) and Jeani Stoddard (NCRA Publications Editor).
- Arizona Dept of Corrections Recreation Dept. Operational Manual 1996.
Table of Contents with links to various sections of their operating procedures. Excellent source for gaining an understanding of how a recreational department operates.
- Prisoner's Rights to Recreation: Quantity, Quality and Other Aspects. Robert D. Lee, Jr. Journal of Criminal Justice
Vol. 24. No. 2. 1996. Pgs. 167-178.
U.S. Courts have come to recognize the need for recreation and have made numerous rulings that guarantee prisoners are afforded some minimal amount of time in recreational activities. Court decisions have also dealt with the quality of recreation and the extent to which prison officials may restrict what activities are conducted. Outdoor recreation, the social aspects of recreation and the health status of prisoners as it relates to recreation are important manners upon which the courts have ruled.
- The Role of Recreation in the Federal Prison System. Thesis. By Arnie Caplan. Acadia University (Canada). 1996.
Provides a very thorough historical review of Correctional Recreation and prior Correctional Recreation research in both the U.S. and Canada. History.
- Recent Developments in Correctional Recreation.
Darlene Veltri. Educational Administrator FBOP. 29th Annual NCRA Conference Myrtle Beach SC March 6th-10th, 1996.
A great update on trends at that time, several of which are still effecting the system.
- Bodybuilding Without Weights. Lee Haney professional bodybuilder, 8 time Mr. Olympia. 29th Annual NCRA Conference Myrtle Beach SC March 6th-10th 1996.
Mr. Haney illustrates several exercises that can be done with your own body weight or against resistance applied by others. Complete with photographs of the exercises.
- Reinventing Correctional Recreation and Revitalizing Correctional Recreation. Dr. Jimmy Calloway VP Government Affairs, Atlanta GA and
Lonny Moore Sr. Deputy Asst. Dir. for Industries , Education, and Vocational Training FBOP. 29th Annual NCRA Conference Myrtle Beach SC March 6th-10th 1996.
Partially presented by Dr. Collaway a longtime friend of the NCRA. He spoke on the need to reinvent programs to meet current needs and requirements.
- How to Collect Research Data to Save our Jobs. Gail McCall Assoc Prof. University of Florida at Gainsville. 29th Annual NCRA Conference Myrtle Beach SC March 6th-10th 1996.
She spoke on the need to document the effects of correctional programs so those documents could be used to defend the programs against possible cuts.
- New Era for NCRA - Correctional Major is
Developed. Kelly Asmussen Asst. Prof. and David Dunnigan Instructor of Physical Education. Both from Peru State College NE. 29th Annual NCRA Conference Myrtle Beach SC March 6th-10th 1996.
Presentation focused on laying groundwork for creating college degree programs for correctional recreation majors.
- Trends for Correctional Recreation Today and Tomorrow. Gail McCall Assoc Prof. University of Florida at Gainsville. 29th Annual NCRA Conference Myrtle Beach SC March 6th-10th 1996.
Presentation encouraged us to initiate the trends, vs. respond to them. We can do that by understanding trends in society and how the relate to correctional recreation, then prepare programs based on that relationship that accomplish our goals.
- NEWS - Cowpokes in Chains. By Adam Cohen. Time Magazine. 20 Nov. 1995. Vol.146. No.21. Pg.46.
About 2/3 of a column on the Louisiana State Prison Rodeo at Angola.
- NEWS - Guards Laud Movie Night in Prison, But Politicians Across Country Pan It. By Laurel Shaper Walters.
Christian Science Monitor. 16 March 1995. Vol.87. No.76. Pg.1.
Discusses ongoing controversy over showing movies in prisons. Focuses on specific situations at a Jefferson City Missouri prison. Approx. 1060 words.
- NEWS- Research on Recreation in Correctional Settings. Sandra L. Little. Parks & Recreation. Vol. 30. No. 2 . February 1995. Pg. 20.
This paper provides an extensive bibliography of Correctional Recreation research studies prior to 1995 and provides comments on several of the major studies.
- DISSERTATION - Content of Analysis of Inmate Responses One Year and Three Years Following a Prison Art Program. Julie Jean Wood Dunn. Univ. of Georgia. 1994. Includes many inmate artworks and disscusses how inmates choices of content changed over time. Available from Digital Dissertations.
- NEWS - Making Hard Time Harder, States Cut Jail TV and Sports. By Adam Nossiter.
New York Times. 17 Sept. 1994. Vol.143. No.49822. Pg. 1. (cover story).
Reports on decisions at several locations to reduce prison entertainment options.
Includes recent laws and inmate reactions.
- BOOK- Sport in Chains. Cheryl Roberts. Township Pub. Co-operative (Cape Town South Africa). ISBN 0958379645. 54 Pages. English. 1994.
Describes the prisoners' struggle to have sports and recreation in Robben Island, a maximum security
prison in South Africa. Includes personal accounts from previous inmates.
- VIDEO- Ordinary people: The penalty area. By Harriet Gavshon and Clifford Bestall. 26 minute VHS tape. First Run/Icarus Films of NY. 1993. OCLC# 37517662
Inmate soccer team at Baviaanspoort Maximum Security Prison is the result of a new recreation program. Film covers their match with the Orlando Pirates from Soweto, South Africa's most popular team. Film highlights the inmate/coach of the prison team and recreation program manager.
- Correctional Recreation and its Impact: Self-esteem Components of Prison Inmates. Jennifer S. Bryson, David L. Groves and Julie Lengfelder. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior. Vol. 29. No. 3-4. 1992. Pgs. 27-39.
The 177 inmates were segmented into four groups based upon the level of felony they were incarcerated for. Billiards, bingo, dominoes, individual weightlifting, competitive weightlifting, jogging , softball, religious services and horseshoes significantly correlated with positive self-esteem in one or more of the groups. This study follows up a study we have listed in 1989.
- Captive Light. by Robert Gerson. Antioch Review. Summer 92, Vol.50. No.3. Pg.538 (13pgs).
13 page article takes an indepth look at the Medium Security Facility of Bayside State
Prison in Leesburg, New Jersey and their use of movies as a recreation and management tool. Includes coverage of prisoner's
perception of eroticism, even when none is intended. Inmate response to specific scenes in several movies are noted. The author himself, is an inmate in this prison. The article is very well done and provides in-depth coverage of specific situations often browsed over reporting on the use of movies in prisons.
- THESIS - Coping in Prison: an Exploration of Participation in Correctional Recreation Programs as a Correlate to Prison Maladjustment. Philip Dwayne Jones. Sam Houston State University. 115 pages. 1992.
- NEWS - Official's Report Blames 7 Guards in Prison Uprising. New York Times.
24 June 1991. Vol.140. No.48641. Pg.A1. (cover story).
Announces a report on the May 1991 uprising at the Super-Max
Southport Correctional Facility near Elmira, N.Y. It places blame seven guards
who took a lunch break and left inmates unsupervised in a recreation area.
- Implications for Leisure Services With Incarcerated Women. N. J. Stumbo and S. L. Little.
Therapeutic Recreation Journal (TRJ). Vol.25. No. 2. 1991. Pgs.49-62.
Reviews relevant service provision principles to initiate the examination of appropriate leisure/recreation programs aimed at treatment and rehabilitation.
- Correctional Recreation and the Self-esteem of Prison Inmates. Psychology and Human Development. Jennifer S. Bryson and David L. Groves. Vol. 2. No. 2. 1987-1989. Pgs. 89-101.
This study involving 177 inmates tested for a correlation between the type of recreational activity most frequently participated in and self-esteem. Recreational activities with a broader coping styles were directly related to self-esteem. Self-esteem had a strong effect on delinquency. Higher self-esteem could lead to a lower rate of recidivism. A follow up study is listed in our 1992 references.
- An Exploration of Recreation Participation Patterns in a Correctional Facility: A Case Study. T. Aguilar and Kelly Asmussen.
Journal of Offender Counseling, Services & Rehabilitation. Vol. 14. No. 1. Pgs. 67-78. 1989.
This study / survey noted the five main roles of recreation in an adult correctional setting are as an institutional adjustment tool, institutional privilege, diversionary service, educational service and rehabilitative service. Diversionary service is the primary use of recreation in most adult correctional situations.
- Evaluation of a Pet Program in Prison: The PAL Project at
Lorton. By Aaron Katcher of the Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary
Medicine, Center for the Interaction of Animals & Society, Philadelphia, Alan M. Beck and
Daniel Levine. Anthrozoos. Vol.2. No.3. Winter 1989. Pgs. 175-180. Published
by United Kingdom: International Society for Anthrozoology at the University of Southhampton in the UK.
Details of a program allowing 20 state prison inmates to keep pets
including the measured effects on inmate frequency and severity
of disciplinary offenses and its effect on inmate blood pressure.
It concludes the program was a valuable recreation experience, but
had minimal effects on inmate behavior.
- NEWS- Sports Behind the Walls. Sports Illustrated. Vol.69. October 17, 1988 issue. Pgs.82-88.
By Rick Telander.
This was a landmark article for public awareness of correctional recreation.
- Inside the Garden Wall - Recreation Yard of the Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora New York.
Progressive Architecture. Vol.68. No.8. Pg.86. August 1987.
- Correctional Recreation. ALLReporter. Jan. 1986. Pg. 6. Published by the American Association for Leisure and Education.
Exceptional article on correctional recreation including its history.
- Attitudes of Minority Inmates Toward Recreation Programs as a Rehabilitative Tool. M. McIntosh.
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. Vol. 10. Issue 1. Dated Spring 1986. Pgs. 107-113. NCJRS #103371.
This study determines the attitudes of three minority inmate groups (Blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans) toward recreation as a rehabilitative tool in one state prison.
- Recreation Expenditure and Deviant Behavior in a State Prison. IR Hunter. Corrective and Social Psychiatry and Journal of Behavior Technology Methods and Therapy. Vol. 34. No. 4. Oct. 1986. Pgs. 105-108.
Abstract not available.
- A Survey of Prison Reform on Recreation Program Services and Perceptions Toward Program Change in Selected Adult Male Federal and State Correctional Institutions. Jimmy Calloway. Phd. Thesis University of Maryland College Park. 1985.
The study determined changes that had occurred as a result of court degrees addressing recreation reform.
- Strength Training and Leisure Counseling as Treatments for Institutionalized Juvenile Delinquents.
By Wayne W. Munson. Kent State, Stanley B. Baker and Herbert M. Lurdegren of Penn State.
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1985. Vol. 2, Pages 65-75.
- Compendium of Prisoners Rights, Court Cases Addressing Correctional
Recreation and Physical Education in Prisons, Jails, Detention
Centers and Pre-Release Facilities. Jimmy Calloway; Craig Colton and Gail McCall.
National Correctional Recreation Association. Book lxxxi, 154 pages. 1983. OCLC: 11129318
- Leisure Services: An Essential Aspect of Offender Rehabilitation. By R. Reynolds. In Holistic Approaches to Offender Rehabilitationedited by L.P. Hippchen. Springfield IL: Thomas. 1982.
- Recreation and Leisure Time Activities in the Correctional Setting - a Selected Bibliography. Maureen A.C. Booth and Ronnie Mills. U.S. Department of Justice NIJ Publication. 48 pages. Published 1981. NCJRS # 69083. Prepared for the National Institute of Corrections and the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, by Aspen Systems Corp., under contract number J-LEAA-023-77"--T.p. verso. "January 1981.". Item 968-H-2.
Designed for the prison administrator and prison correctional program planner it identifies sources that identify, define, justify and structure correctional recreational programs. Most documents were published between 1972 and 1979.
- Issues in Correctional Recreation. Gail E McCall. 1981 Book, Leisure Today. Pgs. 27-58.
American Association for Leisure and Recreation, Education and Recreation, April, 1981.
- MOVIE - Victory. Directed by John Huston. Staring Michael Caine, Max Von Sydow and Sylvester Stallone. Released in 1981. Released on video Feb 24, 1998.
ne, Max Von Sydow and Sylvester Stallone. Released in 1981. Released on video Feb 24, 1998.
P.O.W.s in a German prison camp play soccer against their Nazi captors in 1943. The POWs planned to use the game as a chance to escape, but when they begin to think they could win, they face a decision.
- Correctional Recreation Today, A Pitiful Reflection of Our Past Inadequacy. Jim Calloway.
Parks and Recreation. Vol.16. No.2. Pgs. 22-28. Feb. 1981.
Abstact by ERIC
- New Slants on Old Correctional Recreation Ideas. Carroll Hormachea. Parks and Recreation. Vol.16. No.2.Pgs.30-33. Feb. 1981.
A needs assessment indicated trained professionals were needed to develp an understanding of the needs of inmates.
- Behind teh Leisure Eight Ball in Maximum Security. David. Jewell. Parks and Recreation. Vol.16. No.2. Pgs. 45-47,77. Feb 1981.
Survey study found correctional recreation was too sports oriented.
- The Role of Leisure Time Activities in Corrections. American Correctional Association Corrections Today.
Vol. 42. No. 1. Jan/Feb 1980. Pgs. 36-37, 40-41. NCJRS #65543.
Research has adequately documented that recreation and leisure-time experiences have a substantial impact on one's self concept, socialization and self-expression. This documentation has not typically been transferred to corrections policy and practice.
- THESIS- The Status of Recreation as a Rehabilitative Modality Within the
Maximum Security Correctional Environment : A National Survey.
David L Jewell. Thesis- Southern Illinois University, Dept. of Educational Leadership.
135 Pages. 1979. OCLC: 6177184
- Correctional Recreation: A Stalemate in Progress. James Krug. Parks and Recreation. Vol.14. No.11. Pgs. 36-38,82. Nov. 1979.
Needs for recreational programs is discussed along with problems in implementing them.
- Recreation and Corrections - It's Development, Philosophy and Future. Fain and Fitzhusen. (article in this book) Therapeutic Recreation - State of the Art. National Recreation Association. 1977. NCJRS #61110.
The role of recreation as a positive, integral part of corrections programs is discussed. In the penal institution it serves to maintain not only the physical well being but also mental and emotional health. As inmate morale improves, the inmates become more cooperative which improves staff morale. Recreation can also develop inmate decision making abilities.
- The Need for Recreational Activity in Forced Confinement. Allen Bartholomew. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. Vol. 23. No. 2. Apr-Jun 1976. Pgs. 62-69.
For a high percentage of the inmate population, recreation could take the place of time spent simply in confinement.
- NEWS- The Blotting Out of Time. Rick Telander. Sports Illustrated. Vol.42. April. 1975. Pgs.34-41.
Great article on prison recreation. Primarily focuses on weight lifting and boxing. This article is the predicessor to the 1988 article by the same author. Covers activities at the Illinois Penitentiary at Stateville. Includes numerous photographs.
- Importance of Sport in Corrections Work. Zetitschrift Fuer Strafvollzug
Und Straffaelligenhilfe. Vol.24 No.1. March 1975. Pgs.41-49. By Gesellschaft Fuer Fortbildung and
Der Strafvolizugsbediensteten Ev. The Journal was edited by B. Gareis. (West Germany). NCJRS# 30097.
Conducted in Ebrach, West Germany, this study emphasizes the physical, psychological and social therapeutic value of sports programs for inmates, especially juveniles. Sports activity is not merely an alternative spare time occupation. The study compared two groups of inmates and cites several benefits of prison sports.
- Activity Programming and Juvenile Detention. Ronald P. Reynolds. Journal of Leisurability. Vol.2 No.2. Apr 1975. Pgs. 18-24.
Points out the importance of rec facilities at juvenile deliquent detention centers.
Describes an experimental adolescent program at a northern California county detention center and
identifies some operational difficulties.
- Training of Former Inmates as Therapeutic Recreation Assistants. R. Cipriano.
Therapeutic Recreation Journal (TRJ). Vol.10. No.2. 1975. Pgs.60-62.
- MOVIE- The Longest Yard. Staring Burt Reynolds.
This very popular movie focuses on the antics surrounding a prison football team. Burt Reynolds stars as Paul Crewe, an ex-pro football player. He forms an inmate football team play the wardenís guards.
- Recreation for the Older Population in Correctional Institutions. M. T. Brintz. Therapeutic Recreation Journal
(TRJ), Vol.8. No.2. 1974. Pgs.87-89.
- Leisure Counselling for People in Correctional Institutions. By Bob Brayshaw of the Ministry of Correctional Services,
Ontario, Canada. Journal of Leisurability. Vol.1 No.1. Jan. 1974. Pgs.10-14. PsycINFO Database. Accession Number: 1975-10232-001.
Reviews group leisure education technique used in Ontario Canada prisons to prepare inmates for coping with life inside and outside of prison. Inmates are grouped by marriage status, age, and time remaining in sentence. Article also talks about how this method might be extended to other institutions.
- An Action-Oriented Programme as an Alternative in Corrections. Jurgen Jung. International Journal of Criminology & Penology. Vol.1. No.4. Nov. 1973. Pgs. 385-390. PsycINFO Database. Accession Number: 1975-26075-001.
Focuses on personal rehabilitation using the "Outward Bound" method of group outdoor adventure activities.
- Philosophy of Recreation in Corrections. National Therapeutic Recreation Association. Therapeutic Recreation Journal.
Vol. 6. No. 3. Third Quarter 1972. Pgs. 101-102. NCJRS #9732.
By the constructive use of leisure time inmates can learn to function in the prison and be taught habits that will help them adjust to society upon release.
- Prison Reform - a Historical Glimpse at Recreation's Role. National Therapeutic Recreation Association. Therapeutic Recreation Journal. Vol. 6. No. 3. Third Quarter 1972. Pgs. 103-110. NCJRS # 9730.
A historical overview of recreation in correctional facilities.
- Role of Recreation Services in the Prison Rehabilitation Process. National Therapeutic Recreation Association.
Therapeutic Recreation Journal. Vol. 6. No. 3. Dated Third Quarter 1972. Pgs. 111-114, 144.
Recreation must be an integral part of the total rehabilitative process. It must be related to the personal situation of the inmate and be directed toward the ultimate goal of preparing the inmate to re-enter society.
- Analysis of the Recreational Pursuits of Selected Parolees From a State Correctional Institution in Pennsylvania.
National Therapeutic Recreation Association. Therapeutic Recreation Journal. Vol. 6. No. 3. Third Quarter 1972. Pgs. 134-140.
This study of 20 inmates found prison parole recreation patterns reflected the parolee's concepts and skills prior to imprisonment and the carry-over value of prison recreation activities was not as strong as the carry-over value of pre-prison recreation pursuits.
- Recreation in a Prison Environment. National Therapeutic Recreation Association. Therapeutic Recreation Journal.
Vol. 6. No. 3. Third Quarter 1972. Pgs. 115-118.
The Director of the U.S. Bureau of Prisons offers suggestions on how recreation can and should be used as a part of the therapeutic process in prisons. They can be structured to teach inmates to work together, accept the leadership roles of others and to use leisure time constructively.
- Translated Title: The Importance of Physical Education in the Mental-Educative Process of Mentally Disturbed Inmates and the Attitude of These Inmates Toward Physical Education. Barbara Czajkowska, Marian Golemba, Wojciech Popieluch.
Przeglad Psychologiczny, Vol. 5 No. 3. Pgs.. 90-94. 1967. Publisher: Poland: Przeglad Psychologiczny. ISSN: 0048-5675. Printed in Polish. Article includes Russian and French summaries. Summary available from PsycINFO Database. Accession Number: 1968-05779-001.
170 mentally disturbed inmates exercised for 1 hour, 3 times per week. Most found sport agreeable and observers confirmed
they were more disciplined and less agressive.
- THESIS - The Frequency of Maximum Effort Most Favorable for the Development of
Endurance in Prison Inmates. Ralph Charles Reifinger. Pennsylvania State University. M.S. School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. University of Oregon. 81 Pgs. "UO-62 248--UO-62 250." Accession No: OCLC: 6848487.
Correctional Recreation Serials (magazines)
In recent years, the National Correction Recreation Association has printed two issues each annually of The Grapevine II and Correctional Recreation Today. Several years ago they printed four issues per year of a publication called Grapevine.
Way back in the 1940's a predecessor of the NCRA, the Regional Recreation Association of Correctional Institutions printed a quarterly at Rikers Island in New York. As the official publication of the Regional Recreation Association of Correctional Institutions, it was edited by Norman M. Stone and Herman K. Spector, Sept. 1941-June, 1942; and by Herman K. Spector, April, 1946. The publication was sponsored by the Department of Correction of the City of New York.
Possible sources for references on this page:
We are beginning to develop a list of sources that can be used to obtain many of the articles above. Most are fee based:
SportQuest / SIRC
NCJRS we indicated articles in the NCJRS abstract atabase with their NCJRS number..